Appropriate and Accessible Materials for all Applications
DRAW A NICE DIAGRAM SHOWING RANGE OF SERVICES
Transcript of WHAT IS MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT?
What should drive materials?
needs and wants of the learners must be the drive in creating materials.
TOMLINSON, 2001. p. 66
It is both a field of study and a practical undertaking.
materials are anything that facilitates the learning of language.
as a field – it studies principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation of language teaching material.
as an undertaking – it involves production, evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials.
a theory in language learning
requirements of examinations and language policies
FOR PUBLISHERS and AUTHORS:
for financial gain.
concerned to produce a text that teachers will find innovative, creative and relevant.
WHAT ARE MATERIALS?
Informative (informing the learner about the target language)
Exploratory (helping the learner to make discoveries about the language).
Eliciting (encouraging the learner to use the language)
Experiential (providing the learner with experience of the language in use)
Instructional (guiding the learner in practising the language)
In conflict-affected countries, opinion polling can be used to identify trends in sectors as diverse as security, government, development and the media. It can be applied to identify differences in perceptions between geographic or demographic subsets of the populace (for example gender, age, ethnicity, income and occupation). More broadly, it is employed to create ‘baseline’ data on population perceptions as well as establish and demonstrate trends as those perceptions change. We present our clients with statistically valid findings, minimising the impact of challenges associated with representative sampling in complex contexts.
In conflict-affected areas conducting fully representative and large-scale surveys can carry risks to research staff and respondents. To mitigate this Integrity have employed micro-surveys from which small-scale quantitative data can be derived. In specific geographies, these surveys are can be conducted at regular intervals and employ quota sampling whereby individuals are selected to be representative of the overall community dynamics.
Integrity uses data sets from which statistical analysis can help underpin perceptions collected through qualitative components. These components offer contextual information through which local perceptions may be further understood. Whilst this component does not provide direct insight into perceptions per se, it can offer contextual information through which these perceptions may be further understood. Indicators may include, GDP per capita, education levels, healthcare provision and access, the proportion of residents with an allegiance to a tribal group, acts of violence, and convictions by state and community justice systems, to name just a few.
Interviews: (Key Informant and Focus Group Discussions)
Qualitative research techniques offer greater contextual detail and insights into social dynamics and atmospherics than quantitative studies. Focus groups are informal conversations between individuals who are led through a range of pre-selected themes. Such forums allow participants to speak amongst themselves, allowing concerns to rise to the surface.
Interviews are a powerful qualitative research tool, particularly when used in conjunction with focus groups and participant observations, as they reveal greater nuances than other research methods. As with focus groups, the content of interviews is adapted to meet the precise requirements of the client. Interviews are typically conducted with individuals of high social standing; leaders such as political, tribal or religious figures; teachers, and journalists but can be used effectively to gain an understanding of the concerns of citizens from all levels of society. Interviews can be structured with closed questions for direct comparison with other responses, or be semi-structured with open-ended questions, allowing for insightful elaborations.
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